Although human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy significantly improves the prognosis of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, most patients with advanced breast cancer eventually progress due to drug resistance. At present, there is no standard treatment after patients become resistant to HER2-targeted therapy. Previous studies have indicated that anti-angiogenesis drugs have potential efficacy in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. The present study reported on a case of a pretreated patient with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer with brain metastases who developed resistance to multiple lines of HER2-targeted treatment. The patient was treated with apatinib combined with trastuzumab and albumin-bound paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial response to the third-line treatment with a progression-free survival of 9 months. After combination treatment, the symptoms of headache and vomiting were relieved and all the brain metastases were significantly reduced. The present case indicated that apatinib may have anti-tumor activity in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with HER2-targeted drug resistance. The present case provides valuable information and may offer a new possibility for the treatment of patients with breast cancer with brain metastases who progressed after clinical treatment with small-molecule anti-HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs.