Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the digestive tract, characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and so on, which can make patients physically weakened and live difficult. Although IBD has been recognized for many years, the pathogenesis of IBD has not yet been established and damages to intestinal barrier is thought to be closely associated with IBD. Intestinal barrier is an innate barrier that maintains the homeostasis of the intestinal environment and impedes pathogenic bacteria and toxins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently been found to be involved in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a status of endoplasmic reticulum damaged when unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in excess of the degradation systematic clearance limit of the misfolded proteins. The regulation of ERS on protein folding synthesis and maintenance of cellular homeostasis is an important factor in influencing the integrity of the intestinal barrier. This paper mainly discusses the relationship between ERS and the intestinal barrier, aiming to understand the regulatory role of ERS on the intestinal barrier and the mechanism and to improve new solutions and notions for the treatment or prevention of IBD.