Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) refers to pain that lasts for more than three months due to a disease or an injury to the somatosensory nervous system. The incidence of CNP has been increasing in the world, causing it to become a global concern and patients often experience spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, abnormal pain or even abnormal sensation as some of its main symptoms. In addition to serious pain and poor physical health, CNP also negatively affects patients' mental health, thus impacting the overall quality of their lives. The pathogenesis of CNP is not clear, but some studies have proved that central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, neuroinflammation, dysfunction in descending nociceptive modulatory systems, oxidative stress reaction, activation of glial cells and psychological factors play an important role in the occurrence and development of CNP. In this context, this article summarizes the current research progress on the mechanism of CNP to provide a basis for further research in preventing and treating the disease.