Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is an extremely rare condition. Its clinicopathological characteristics remain unclear because of the limited number of patients with PPHL. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of PPHL. We reviewed the electronic medical records and pathology slides of our 10 PPHL patients. The female-to-male ratio was 6:4, and the mean age was 41 years. Although three patients had no symptoms, seven had localized or generalized symptoms, including cough, sputum, chest discomfort/pain, and weight loss. Some cases had not been diagnosed as PPHL in the initial needle biopsy. Four patients underwent surgical resection. With chemotherapy, eight patients achieved complete remission. We also conducted a thorough literature review on 105 previously reported PPHL cases. Among a total of 115 PPHL cases, the most common subtype was nodular sclerosis (37.4%). More than half of the cases (55%) were clinically suspected as infectious pneumonia. Of 61 patients whose biopsies were available, 27 (44.3%) were diagnosed correctly as Hodgkin lymphoma, whereas the misdiagnoses included tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, solitary fibrous tumor, and adenocarcinoma. We demonstrated that PPHL represents a diagnostic challenge on small biopsies. Recognizing that this rare tumor can mimic infectious and inflammatory diseases as well as malignancies is important because the accurate diagnosis of PPHL is essential for adequate clinical management.