Temporomandibular disorder is a musculoskeletal disease with complex, multifactorial etiology regarding improper functioning of the stomatognathic system (masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints, and surrounding structures). This article presents medical emergencies occurring among patients treated for temporomandibular disorders, which tend to constitute a severe difficulty for practitioners during their clinical practice. Examples of the most common emergencies of this type are disc displacement without reduction and a sudden contraction of the inferior part of the lateral pterygoid muscle. The latter occurs in cases of uncontrolled and incorrect use of the anterior repositioning splints and the hypertrophy of the coronoid process of the mandible. The sudden attacks of pain of secondary trigeminal neuralgia are also discussed in this article, together with their specific nature, which is significantly different from the nature of the pain of primary trigeminal neuralgia, yet the two types of neuralgia can be easily confused when the primary one takes the painful form. Subsequent emergencies discussed are myofascial pain syndrome, traumatic and inflammatory states of the temporomandibular joints, subluxation, and the consequences of intense occlusive parafunctions. Finally, the recommended therapeutic methods, which are used as part of the treatment in the cases of aforementioned emergencies, are described in this mini-review article, emphasizing that the implementation of the incorrect treatment and rehabilitation for emergencies of temporomandibular disorders may lead to permanent damage to the soft tissue structures of the temporomandibular joints.