Neuropathic pain is a risk factor for cognitive defects. The ubiquitous expression of AQP4 in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system is altered in the neurodegenerative disease. However, the exact role of AQP4 in cognitive impairment induced by chronic neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we discovered that AQP4 protein and mRNA expression decreased time-dependently in the model of chronic neuropathic pain-induced cognitive disorder. AQP4 overexpression recovered mice from cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the concentration of Aβ1-42 in the serum and hippocampus reduced in mice with AQP4 overexpression adeno-associated virus injection. In conclusion, AQP4 in astrocytes is important in mitigating cognitive impairment caused by chronic neuropathic pain.