Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a classic analgesic target, but antagonists of TRPV1 failed in clinical trials due to their side effects like hyperthermia. Here we rationally engineer a peptide s-RhTx as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of TRPV1. Patch-clamp recordings demonstrate s-RhTx selectively potentiated TRPV1 activation. s-RhTx also slows down capsaicin-induced desensitization of TRPV1 in the presence of calcium to cause more calcium influx in TRPV1-expressing cells. In addition, our thermodynamic mutant cycle analysis shows that E652 in TRPV1 outer pore specifically interacts with R12 and K22 in s-RhTx. Furthermore, we demonstrate in vivo that s-RhTx exhibits long-lasting analgesic effects in noxious heat hyperalgesia and CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain by promoting the reversible degeneration of intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF) expressing TRPV1 channels in mice, while their body temperature remains unaffected. Our results suggest s-RhTx is an analgesic agent as a PAM of TRPV1.