Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is the most common disabling complication of diabetes. Emerging evidence has linked the pathogenesis of DNP to the aberrant sprouting of sensory axons into the epidermal area; however, the underlying molecular events remain poorly understood. Here we found that an axon guidance molecule, Netrin-3 (Ntn-3), was expressed in the sensory neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), and downregulation of Ntn-3 expression was highly correlated with the severity of DNP in a diabetic mouse model. Genetic ablation of Ntn-3 increased the intra-epidermal sprouting of sensory axons and worsened the DNP in diabetic mice. In contrast, the elevation of Ntn-3 levels in DRGs significantly inhibited the intra-epidermal axon sprouting and alleviated DNP in diabetic mice. In conclusion, our studies identified Ntn-3 as an important regulator of DNP pathogenesis by gating the aberrant sprouting of sensory axons, indicating that Ntn-3 is a potential druggable target for DNP treatment.