Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a frequently encountered pathologic condition in orthopedic daily practice. Discectomy is considered when patients with LDH experience persistent limb or lumbar pain or neurologic deficits. Various minimally invasive techniques are available for discectomy. Among these techniques, full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy (FED) is one of the least invasive options. During FED, removal of LDH is accomplished using 2 major approaches: transforaminal (TF) or interlaminar (IL). The prototype FED was percutaneous nucelotomy. An endoscope was integrated to percutaneous nucelotomy and TF endoscopic lumbar discectomy (TELD) was first derived. IL endoscopic lumbar discectomy (IELD) was introduced years after TELD. TELD and IELD can compensate for the shortcomings of each other and endoscopic spine surgeons need to acquire both techniques to deal with all type of LDHs. Because of its long history, the TF approach seems to represent the major approach for FED, but the IL approach has numerous benefits in particular types of LDH. The present article focuses on IELD and reviews the history, surgical techniques, indications and contraindications, clinical outcomes, and complications. This review will contribute to improved understanding of IELD as an important technique in full-endoscopic spine surgery.