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2022 Dec 15

Epilepsy Behav


The potential of intravenous topiramate for the treatment of status epilepticus.


Löscher W, Trinka E
Epilepsy Behav. 2022 Dec 15; 138:109032.
PMID: 36528009.


There is considerable clinical evidence that topiramate (TPM) has a high potential in the treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus (RSE, SRSE). Because TPM is only approved for oral administration, it is applied as suspension via a nasogastric tube for SE treatment. However, this route of administration is impractical in an emergency setting and leads to variable absorption with unpredictable plasma levels and time to peak concentration. Thus, the development of an intravenous (i.v.) solution for TPM is highly desirable. Here we present data on two parenteral formulations of TPM that are currently being developed. One of these solutions is using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD; Captisol®) as an excipient. A 1% solution of TPM in 10% Captisol® has been reported to be well tolerated in safety studies in healthy volunteers and patients with epilepsy or migraine, but efficacy data are not available. The other solution uses the FDA- and EMA-approved excipient amino sugar meglumine. Meglumine is much more effective to dissolve TPM in water than Captisol®. A 1% solution of TPM can be achieved with 0.5-1% of meglumine. While the use of Captisol®-containing solutions is restricted in children and patients with renal impairment, such restrictions do not apply to meglumine. Recently, first-in-human data were reported for a meglumine-based solution of TPM, indicating safety and efficacy when used as a replacement for oral administration in a woman with epilepsy. Based on the multiple mechanisms of action of TPM that directly target the molecular neuronal alterations that are thought to underlie the loss of efficacy of benzodiazepines and other anti-seizure medications during prolonged SE and its rapid brain penetration after i.v. administration, we suggest that parenteral (i.v.) TPM is ideally suited for the treatment of RSE and SRSE. This paper was presented at the 8th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures held in September 2022.