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Papers of the Week

Papers: 10 Dec 2022 - 16 Dec 2022

2022 Nov 23

Int J Mol Sci



Broaden Horizons: The Advancement of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.


Li J, Yi X, Ai J
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 23; 23(23).
PMID: 36498919.


Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating disease that induces mental stress, lower urinary symptoms, and pelvic pain, therefore resulting in a decline in quality of life. The present diagnoses and treatments still lead to unsatisfactory outcomes, and novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are needed. Although our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of IC/BPS is growing, the altered permeability of the impaired urothelium, the sensitized nerves on the bladder wall, and the chronic or intermittent sensory pain with inaccurate location, as well as pathologic angiogenesis, fibrosis, and Hunner lesions, all act as barriers to better diagnoses and treatments. This study aimed to summarize the comprehensive information on IC/BPS research, thereby promoting the progress of IC/BPS in the aspects of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. According to diverse international guidelines, the etiology of IC/BPS is associated with multiple factors, while the presence of Hunner lesions could largely distinguish the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of non-Hunner lesions in IC/BPS patients. On the basis of the diagnosis of exclusion, the diverse present diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are undergoing a transition from a single approach to multimodal strategies targeting different potential phenotypes recommended by different guidelines. Investigations into the mechanisms involved in urinary symptoms, pain sensation, and bladder fibrosis indicate the pathophysiology of IC/BPS for further potential strategies, both in diagnosis and treatment. An overview of IC/BPS in terms of epidemiology, etiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and fundamental research is provided with the latest evidence. On the basis of shared decision-making, a multimodal strategy of diagnosis and treatment targeting potential phenotypes for individual patients with IC/BPS would be of great benefit for the entire process of management. The complexity and emerging evidence on IC/BPS elicit more relevant studies and research and could optimize the management of IC/BPS patients.