Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a serious side effect that impairs the quality of life of patients treated with the chemotherapeutic agent, oxaliplatin. The underlying pathophysiology of OIPN remains unclear, and there are no effective therapeutics. This study aimed to investigate the causal relationship between spinal microglial activation and OIPN and explore the analgesic effects of syringaresinol, a phytochemical from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, on OIPN symptoms. The causality between microglial activation and OIPN was investigated by assessing cold and mechanical allodynia in mice after intrathecal injection of the serum supernatant from a BV-2 microglial cell line treated with oxaliplatin. The microglial inflammatory response was measured based on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB) expression in the spinal dorsal horn. The effects of syringaresinol were tested using behavioral and immunohistochemical assays. We found that oxaliplatin treatment activated the microglia to increase inflammatory responses, leading to the induction of pain. Syringaresinol treatment significantly ameliorated oxaliplatin-induced pain and suppressed microglial expression of inflammatory signaling molecules. Thus, we concluded that the analgesic effects of syringaresinol on OIPN were achieved via the modulation of spinal microglial inflammatory responses.