Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a rare disease that must be differentiated from trigeminal neuralgia. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and several options of treatment for GPN. Lessons learned through our experience of treating GPN are presented in detail, as well as cases of misdiagnosis and diagnostic pitfalls. Microvascular decompression (MVD) should be primarily considered for medically intractable GPN. Techniques employed in MVD for GPN are categorized and described. Especially, we underscore the advantages of the 'transposition' technique where insulating material is positioned 'off' the root entry zone (REZ), instead of 'on' it. We believe this 'off-the-REZ' technique can fundamentally prevent recurrence, if applicable. In addition, Gamma Knife Radiosurgery can be an alternative option when a patient is ineligible for MVD, though it is categorized as a destructive procedure.