The hydroalcoholic extract of Polygala altomontana (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, i.g.) showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive action during the inflammatory phase of the formalin test. In addition, the preparation (30 and 300 mg/kg, i.g.) showed anti-hyperalgesic action when tested on a mechanical nociception model. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS data indicated the active extract contained phenylpropanoid sucrose esters, glycosylated quercetin derivatives, styrylpyrones, and coumarins. Some identified compounds, including styrylpyrones and coumarins, have previously demonstrated antinociceptive action. The results also show that P. altomontana shows potential for developing pain-relieving herbal remedies and drugs.