Several studies have found that antifibrosis treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can cause a variety of side effects. No network meta-analysis (NMA) analyzes the adverse events of antifibrotic drugs for NAFLD. This NMA aimed to systematically compare the drug-related side effects when using different pharmacological agents for the treatment of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were systematically searched to select related studies published in English from the database inception until 30 June 2022. We conducted Bayesian fixed-effects NMA using data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to derive relative risks (RRs). The surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities was used to assess ranking. A total of 26 RCTs with 19 interventions met the inclusion criteria. SUCRA analysis suggested that the lanifibranor group had the highest risk of diarrhea (SUCRA, 94), whereas the liraglutide group had the highest risk of constipation (SUCRA, 92.9). The semaglutide group showed the highest incidence of nausea (SUCRA, 81.2) and abdominal pain (SUCRA, 90.5), respectively. The cenicriviroc group showed the highest risk in the incidence of fatigue (SUCRA, 82.4). The MSDC-0602K group had the highest risk of headache (SUCRA, 76.4), whereas the obeticholic acid group had the highest risk of pruritus (SUCRA, 80.1). The risk of side effects significantly varied among different pharmacologic regimens, and evidence showed that lanifibranor, liraglutide, semaglutide, cenicriviroc, MSDC-0602K and obeticholic acid were the pharmacological interventions with the highest risk in patients with NAFLD. This study may guide clinicians and support further research.