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Papers of the Week

2022 Oct

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg


Suppl 2

The Anatomic Variations of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses and Their Effect on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Adult Patients.


Azgaonkar S P, Dutta M, Kudalkar U N, Das S, Sinha R
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2022 Oct; 74(Suppl 2):960-966.
PMID: 36452856.


To find out the anatomic variations of nose/paranasal sinuses and how they affect the sinuses in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). This observational cross-sectional study included adults with CRS, refractory to optimum medical management, planned for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Pre-operative naso-endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) were utilized to estimate the extent of CRS, and to note the anatomic variations of the sinuses. The findings were corroborated within the practical scope of FESS. The anatomic variations were evaluated to establish how they affected the related sinus(es). Most of the 53 patients were young adults presenting with nasal obstruction (77%), discharge (76%) and headache (68%). On diagnostic naso-endoscopy, prominent agger bulge (83% of the nasal sides), prominent uncinate (18%), inferior turbinate hypertrophy (34%), concha bullosa (38%), mucopus and polyp in the middle meatus (51%, 19%; respectively), and gross septal deviation (55%) were noted. The spheno-ethmoid and frontal recesses were predominantly unremarkable. CT revealed inferior turbinate hypertrophy (38% of the nasal sides), agger (100%), and lateralized/collapsed uncinate (8%). Ethmoids and maxillary sinuses were diseased in 50% and 65% respectively, with blocked ostiomeatal complex in 32% and prominent bulla in 48%. Frontal and sphenoid sinuses were least involved (10%, 2%; respectively). Enlarged agger caused maxillary sinusitis (87%), whereas anterior ethmoiditis resulted from enlarged agger (100%), bulla (89%) and frontal cells (51%). Identification of the anatomic variations of the nose/paranasal sinuses through CT and naso-endoscopy (diagnostic, per-operative) is crucial to understand the pattern, extent and severity of the involvement of sinuses in CRS.