I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2023 Jun

Neural Regen Res



Neuro faces of beneficial T cells: essential in brain, impaired in aging and neurological diseases, and activated functionally by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.


T cells are essential for a healthy life, performing continuously: immune surveillance, recognition, protection, activation, suppression, assistance, eradication, secretion, adhesion, migration, homing, communications, and additional tasks. This paper describes five aspects of normal beneficial T cells in the healthy or diseased brain. First, normal beneficial T cells are essential for normal healthy brain functions: cognition, spatial learning, memory, adult neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. T cells decrease secondary neuronal degeneration, increase neuronal survival after central nervous system (CNS) injury, and limit CNS inflammation and damage upon injury and infection. Second, while pathogenic T cells contribute to CNS disorders, recent studies, mostly in animal models, show that specific subpopulations of normal beneficial T cells have protective and regenerative effects in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. These include Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), stroke, CNS trauma, chronic pain, and others. Both T cell-secreted molecules and direct cell-cell contacts deliver T cell neuroprotective, neuroregenerative and immunomodulatory effects. Third, normal beneficial T cells are abnormal, impaired, and dysfunctional in aging and multiple neurological diseases. Different T cell impairments are evident in aging, brain tumors (mainly Glioblastoma), severe viral infections (including COVID-19), chronic stress, major depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, ALS, MS, stroke, and other neuro-pathologies. The main detrimental mechanisms that impair T cell function are activation-induced cell death, exhaustion, senescence, and impaired T cell stemness. Fourth, several physiological neurotransmitters and neuropeptides induce by themselves multiple direct, potent, beneficial, and therapeutically-relevant effects on normal human T cells, via their receptors in T cells. This scientific field is called "Nerve-Driven Immunity". The main neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that induce directly activating and beneficial effects on naïve normal human T cells are: dopamine, glutamate, GnRH-II, neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and somatostatin. Fifth, "Personalized Adoptive Neuro-Immunotherapy". This is a novel unique cellular immunotherapy, based on the "Nerve-Driven Immunity" findings, which was recently designed and patented for safe and repeated rejuvenation, activation, and improvement of impaired and dysfunctional T cells of any person in need, by ex vivo exposure of the person's T cells to neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Personalized adoptive neuro-immunotherapy includes an early ex vivo personalized diagnosis, and subsequent ex vivo → in vivo personalized adoptive therapy, tailored according to the diagnosis. The Personalized Adoptive Neuro-Immunotherapy has not yet been tested in humans, pending validation of safety and efficacy in clinical trials, especially in brain tumors, chronic infectious diseases, and aging, in which T cells are exhausted and/or senescent and dysfunctional.