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Papers of the Week

2022 Nov 25


Formyl peptide receptors are involved in CTX-induced impairment of lymphocyte functions.


Zambelli VO, Hösch N G, Farom S, Zychar BC, Spadacci-Morena DD, Carvalho L V, Curi R, Lepsch LB, Scavone C, Augusto Sant'Anna O, Gonçalves L RC, Cury Y, Sampaio SC
Toxicon. 2022 Nov 25:106986.
PMID: 36442690.


Crotoxin (CTX) is a neurotoxin that is isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, which displays immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumoral effects. Previous research has demonstrated that CTX promotes the adherence of leukocytes to the endothelial cells in blood microcirculation and the high endothelial venules of lymph nodes, which reduces the number of blood cells and lymphocytes. Studies have also shown that these effects are mediated by lipoxygenase-derived mediators. However, the exact lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoid involved in the CTX effect on lymphocytes is yet to be characterized. As CTX stimulates lipoxin-derived mediators from macrophages and lymphocyte effector functions could be modulated by activating formyl peptide receptors, we aimed to investigate whether these receptors were involved in CTX-induced redistribution and functions of lymphocytes in rats. We used male Wistar rats treated with CTX to demonstrate that Boc2 (butoxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe), an antagonist of formyl peptide receptors, prevented CTX-induced decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes and increased the expression of the lymphocyte adhesion molecule LFA1. CTX reduced the T and B lymphocyte functions, such as lymphocyte proliferation in response to the mitogen Concanavalin A and antibody production in response to BSA immunization, respectively, which was prevented by the administration of Boc-2. Importantly, mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes from CTX-treated rats showed an increased release of 15-epi-LXA. These results indicate that formyl peptide receptors mediate CTX-induced redistribution of lymphocytes and that 15-epi-LXA4 is a key mediator of the immunosuppressive effects of CTX.