The study examined the engagement in risk-taking behaviors and their onset in children with ADHD compared to children with primary headaches. Whether ADHD is associated with higher engagement in risk-taking behavior compared to other neuro-developmental disorders (and not only typical development) has yet to be demonstrated. A sample of 189 children, 10-18 years old, undergoing neurologic surveillance for ADHD (N = 144) or primary headaches (N = 45) participated in the study. The children and their parents reported the children's engagement in various risk-taking behaviors. The ADHD group reported a higher level of general risk-taking behavior relative to the headache group. The differences remained significant even after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. No differences in the age of onset of risk-taking behaviors were found. It is concluded that risk-taking behavior is more common in children with ADHD under active neurological surveillance than in children followed for primary headaches.