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Papers of the Week

Papers: 26 Nov 2022 - 2 Dec 2022

Animal Studies, Pharmacology/Drug Development

2022 Nov 09

Int J Mol Sci



PAC, VPAC, and VPAC Receptor Expression in Rat and Human Trigeminal Ganglia: Characterization of PACAP-Responsive Receptor Antibodies.


Tasma Z, Siow A, Harris PWR, Brimble MA, O'Carroll SJ, Hay DL, Walker CS
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 09; 23(22).
PMID: 36430275.


Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide expressed in the trigeminal ganglia (TG). The TG conducts nociceptive signals in the head and may play roles in migraine. PACAP infusion provokes headaches in healthy individuals and migraine-like attacks in patients; however, it is not clear whether targeting this system could be therapeutically efficacious. To effectively target the PACAP system, an understanding of PACAP receptor distribution is required. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize commercially available antibodies and use these to detect PACAP-responsive receptors in the TG. Antibodies were initially validated in receptor transfected cell models and then used to explore receptor expression in rat and human TG. Antibodies were identified that could detect PACAP-responsive receptors, including the first antibody to differentiate between the PAC and PAC receptor splice variants. PAC, VPAC, and VPAC receptor-like immunoreactivity were observed in subpopulations of both neuronal and glial-like cells in the TG. In this study, PAC, VPAC, and VPAC receptors were detected in the TG, suggesting they are all potential targets to treat migraine. These antibodies may be useful tools to help elucidate PACAP-responsive receptor expression in tissues. However, most antibodies exhibited limitations, requiring the use of multiple methodologies and the careful inclusion of controls.