Inflammation is known to cause pain, and pain is of one of the cardinal signs of inflammation. Mounting evidence suggests that acute inflammation also resolves pain through specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) and macrophage signaling. GPR37 is expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes in the brain and has been implicated in multiple disorders, such as demyelination, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that GPR37 is expressed by macrophages and confers protection against infection by bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, GPR37 promotes the resolution of inflammatory pain and infection-induced pain, as the duration of pain after tissue injury and infection is prolonged in mice lacking . Mechanistically, activation of GPR37 enhances macrophage phagocytosis, and -deficient macrophages exhibit dysregulations of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, switching from M2- to M1-like phenotypes. We also discuss novel ligands of GPR37, including neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a SPM derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and bone-derived hormone osteocalcin (OCN), which can suppress oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. NPD1 stimulates macrophage phagocytosis via GPR37 and exhibits potent analgesic actions in various animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Targeting GPR37 may lead to novel therapeutics for treating inflammation, infection, pain, and neurological diseases.