Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) can induce systemic inflammatory response syndrome, including neuroinflammation. Finding suitable compounds is necessary for attenuating neuroinflammation and avoiding cerebral complications following DHCA. In the present study, we established DHCA rat models and monitored the vital signs during the surgical process. After surgery, we found significantly increased proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) in DHCA rats. Quantitative proteomics analysis was performed for exploring the differentially expressed proteins in hippocampus of DHCA rats and the data showed the adiponectin receptor 1 protein was upregulated. More importantly, administration of AdipoRon, a small-molecule adiponectin receptor agonist, could improve the basic vital signs and attenuate the increased IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in DHCA rats. Furthermore, AdipoRon inhibits the activation of microglia (M1 state) and promotes their transition to an anti-inflammatory state, via promoting the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and downregulating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in DHCA rats. Consistently, we used LPS-treated BV2 cells to mimic the neuroinflammatory condition and found that AdipoRon dose-dependently decreased cytokines, along with increased phosphorylation of AMPK and downregulated NF-κB. In conclusion, our present data supported that AdipoRon inhibited DHCA-induced neuroinflammation via activating the hippocampal AMPK/NF-κB pathway.