This study aimed to assess the histological changes in the maxillary sinus and its adjacent dental tissues as pulp and periodontal ligament during pregnancy and investigate the role of estrogen hormone in these changes through the detection of estrogen receptors in these tissues. Sixteen adult female rats were used and were allocated into two groups: control non-pregnant (n = 8) and pregnant (n = 8). They were sacrificed and their heads were prepared for histological and immunohistochemical examination for estrogen receptor alpha. Our results revealed that pregnant rats revealed inflammatory changes in the sinus as thick epithelial lining, loss of cilia, swollen goblet cells, intraepithelial and interstitial edema. The lamina propria demonstrated considerable infiltration of inflammatory cells, glandular hyperplasia with vacuolar degeneration, and vascular congestion. Periodontal ligament and pulp revealed hyperemia and vascular congestion. Immunohistochemical examination of estrogen receptor alpha in the maxillary sinus and adjacent dental tissues (Periodontal ligament and pulp) in pregnant rats revealed a significant increase in its expression in all examined tissues. In conclusion, there was an increase in expression of ERα in the sinus mucosa and dental tissues during pregnancy together with slight inflammatory changes in these tissues. Hence, dentists should be aware of the effect of these changes on the pregnant women avoiding teeth extraction due to misdiagnosis of dental, periodontal or sinus pain after exclusion of true pathologies.