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Papers of the Week

2022 Nov 17

Pharmaceuticals (Basel)



Therapeutic Potential of Honey and Propolis on Ocular Disease.


Abd Rashid N, Mohammed S N F, Syed Abd Halim S A, Ghafar N A, Abdul Jalil N A
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022 Nov 17; 15(11).
PMID: 36422549.


Honey and propolis have recently become the key target of attention for treating certain diseases and promoting overall health and well-being. A high content of flavonoids and phenolic acids found in both honey and propolis contributes to the antioxidant properties to scavenge free radicals. Honey and propolis also exhibited antibacterial effects where they act in two ways, namely the production of hydrogen peroxide (HO) and gluconic acids following the enzymatic activities of glucose oxidase, which exerts oxidative damage on the bacteria. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects of honey and propolis are mainly by reducing proinflammatory factors such as interleukins and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Their effects on pain were discovered through modulation at a peripheral nociceptive neuron or binding to an opioid receptor in the higher center. The aforementioned properties of honey have been reported to possess potential therapeutic topical application on the exterior parts of the eyes, particularly in treating conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, and corneal injury. In contrast, most of the medicinal values of propolis are beneficial in the internal ocular area, such as the retina, optic nerve, and uvea. This review aims to update the current discoveries of honey and propolis in treating various ocular diseases, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anti-nociceptive properties. In conclusion, research has shown that propolis and honey have considerable therapeutic promise for treating various eye illnesses, although the present study designs are primarily animal and in vitro studies. Therefore, there is an urgent need to translate this finding into a clinical setting.