The botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a neurotoxin produced by . It causes botulism and represents the most powerful natural poison. In urological practice, the indications for BoNT/A therapy include neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) or idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), urinary tract infections (UTI), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and, more recently, chronic prostatic pain (CPP). BoNT/A is not only conducive to the treatment of muscle spasticity but also effectively works on hyperalgesia associated with various disorders of the lower urinary tract, thanks to its anti-nociceptive properties. While Botox (Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA) is currently being used across the globe, we have been using Chinese BoNT/A for many years for the treatment of DSD, NDO, idiopathic OAB, IC/BPS, BPH and UTI. Our experience showed that Chinese BoNT/A was as good as other BoNT/A products in terms of efficacy, safety, and tolerability. In this study, we explored the current and potential applications of Chinese BoNT/A in urology, and reviewed the background information regarding the toxin.