Chronic low back pain, defined as low back pain lasting more than 3 months, is a globally prevalent health problem with significantly high medical and economic burden on individuals and the society. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of chronic low back pain and examine its association with health outcomes including physical function, mental health, and quality of life among adult population in Singapore. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis was performed using baseline data of the 1941 adults (mean age: 52.6 years, range: 21-97 years) from a representative population health survey conducted in the Central region of Singapore. Those with self-reported chronic low back pain in past six months were identified. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and EQ-5D-5L were used to measure physical function and limitation, mental health, and health-related quality of life, respectively. Generalized Linear Regressions were used to examine the association of chronic low back pain with physical function, limitation, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. There were 8.1% (n = 180) participants reporting having chronic low back pain in past six months, among whom 80.5% sought treatments at either primary care, specialist outpatient, or Traditional Chinese Medicine clinics. Individuals with chronic low back pain reported poorer physical function, more limitations in performing major life tasks and social activities, more depressive symptoms, and lower health-related quality of life (all p < 0.01), even after adjusting for socio-demographics, lifestyle factors, and number of morbidities. The prevalence of chronic low back pain was 8.1% among the study population. Chronic low back pain was associated with poorer physical function, more limitations and depressive symptoms, and lower health-related quality of life. The findings highlight the significant impact of chronic low back pain on physical function and limitation, mental health, and health-related quality of life in a general population. Increased awareness on prevention, early and proper management of low back pain, and rehabilitation policies are required to better tackle the burden of low back pain at the population level.