Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common vexing problem for people with diabetes and a costly problem for society. The pathophysiology is not well understood, and no safe and effective mechanistically-based treatment has been identified. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for painful diabetic neuropathy. Excessive intraneuronal glucose in people with diabetes can be shunted away from physiological glycolysis into multiple pathological pathways associated with neuropathy and pain. The first three treatments that are traditionally offered consist of risk factor reduction, lifestyle modifications, and pharmacological therapy, which includes only three drugs that are approved for this indication by the United States Food and Drug Administration. All of these traditional treatments are often inadequate for relieving neuropathic pain, and thus, new approaches are needed. Modern devices based on neuromodulation technology, which act directly on the nervous system, have been recently cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration for painful diabetic neuropathy and offer promise as next-in-line therapy when traditional therapies fail.