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Papers of the Week

Papers: 29 Oct 2022 - 4 Nov 2022

2022 Oct 12

J Clin Med



Osteoarthritis: New Insight on Its Pathophysiology.


Coaccioli S, Sarzi-Puttini P, Zis P, Rinonapoli G, Varrassi G
J Clin Med. 2022 Oct 12; 11(20).
PMID: 36294334.


Understanding of the basis of osteoarthritis (OA) has seen some interesting advancements in recent years. It has been observed that cartilage degeneration is preceded by subchondral bone lesions, suggesting a key role of this mechanism within the pathogenesis and progression of OA, as well as the formation of ectopic bone and osteophytes. Moreover, low-grade, chronic inflammation of the synovial lining has gained a central role in the definition of OA physiopathology, and central immunological mechanisms, innate but also adaptive, are now considered crucial in driving inflammation and tissue destruction. In addition, the role of neuroinflammation and central sensitization mechanisms as underlying causes of pain chronicity has been characterized. This has led to a renewed definition of OA, which is now intended as a complex multifactorial joint pathology caused by inflammatory and metabolic factors underlying joint damage. Since this evidence can directly affect the definition of the correct therapeutic approach to OA, an improved understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms is fundamental. To this aim, this review provides an overview of the most updated evidence on OA pathogenesis; it presents the most recent insights on the pathophysiology of OA, describing the interplay between immunological and biochemical mechanisms proposed to drive inflammation and tissue destruction, as well as central sensitization mechanisms. Moreover, although the therapeutic implications consequent to the renewed definition of OA are beyond this review scope, some suggestions for intervention have been addressed.