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Papers of the Week

2022 Oct 21

Medicine (Baltimore)



Is there a relationship between 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium and mental health in migraine patients?: A cross-sectional study.


Arab A, Zabibah RS, Alshahrani SH, Karimi E, Askari G, Khorvash F
Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Oct 21; 101(42):e31037.
PMID: 36281190.


There is a lack of evidence and consensus in terms of the association between dietary intake of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) with mental health. By using 24-hours urinary samples as the gold standard method, we conducted a study to explore the association between dietary intake of Na and K with parameters of mental health including depression, anxiety, and stress among an Iranian population diagnosed with migraine. In the present study, 262 subjects (20-50 years old), with a confirmed diagnosis of migraine were enrolled. Mental health was investigated by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) questionnaire. Dietary intake of Na and K was estimated by means of a 24-hour urine sample. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was implemented and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was stated. After controlling for potential confounders, the 24-hour urinary Na was associated significantly with the risk of depression (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.00; P = .053). After adjustment for confounders, those in the highest tertile of the 24-hour urinary Na/K ratio had lower odds for having depression (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.93; P = .027), and marginally significantly lower risk of anxiety (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.31, 1.06; P = .079) and stress (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.31, 1.02; P = .061). In conclusion, higher 24-hour urine Na was associated with a significantly lower risk of depression. Moreover, the 24-hour Na/K ratio was significantly associated with lower risk of depression, anxiety, and stress.