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Papers of the Week

2022 Sep




Clinicopathological Challenges in Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Our Experience.


Kumari S, Pandey S, Verma M, Rana A K, Kumari S
Cureus. 2022 Sep; 14(9):e29128.
PMID: 36259025.


Background and objective Nasal and paranasal lesions are one of the most common otorhinolaryngological presentations encountered in clinical practice. Common presenting symptoms of these lesion range from nasal blockades, facial swellings, pain, nasal discharge, and epistaxis to orbital and ear symptoms. Diagnosis can be tricky as these symptoms are common in inflammatory conditions and tumors. The aim of our study was to observe the epidemiology and clinical pathological findings in patients with nasal and paranasal masses presenting to our institute and discuss the challenges in proper diagnosis and management due to similar presentations, and the role of histopathological examination (HPE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in overcoming these challenges. Methods The IPD records of 396 patients were taken up for the study. All the specimens were sent in 10% neutral buffered formalin for examination as biopsy for diagnosis or after surgical excision. After adequate fixation, the biopsy specimen was submitted for routine processing, followed by paraffin embedding, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Special stains like periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stains for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were used as required. IHC was performed in the required samples. IHC markers were performed on representative paraffin-embedded sections according to the streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique as needed. The findings were noted, and histology was correlated with clinical presentations and investigations, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using SPSS Statistics (IBM, Armonk, NY). Results Of note, 67.92%% were non-neoplastic lesions whereas 18.18% came out to be benign neoplasms and 13.88% were malignant lesions on HPE. Nasal obstruction was the most common presenting symptom (73.23% of patients) followed by nasal mass (64.14% of cases). Inflammatory sinonasal polyps were the most prominent cases in our study, accounting for 41.16% of all lesions; 18.68% fungal RS (mucormycosis) were seen in our study and 4.54% were cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). The majority of benign neoplasms encountered were Schneiderian papilloma or inverted papilloma (06.81%). Eighteen (4.54%) cases of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were seen in our study and 2.77% (n=11) cases were of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Of 18 cases of SCC, moderately differentiated SCC carcinoma accounted for 10 cases followed by poorly differentiated SCC (5/18) and nonkeratinizing SCC (3/18). IHC for p40 was performed in all the cases of nonkeratinizing SCC, which showed strong and diffuse nuclear positivity. Conclusion The nasal cavity is the site of the most varied presentation of tumors in the upper respiratory tract. Mass in the nose and paranasal sinus (PNS) form a heterogeneous group of lesions with varied histopathological features. The proximity of the area to the eyes and brain warrants early definitive diagnosis so that the lesion is treated before it can involve important and vital centers. Even though malignant nasal tumors have a very low incidence, they cause a lot of morbidity due to their long course and frequent local recurrences. Nasal tumors tend to become polypoidal. Epithelioid papilloma of the nasal cavity often resembles a nasal polyp. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging due to similar presentations and appearances, and hence histological examination is a vital tool for the timely diagnosis of such patients.