Migraine is a neurovascular disease with a high disability rate. Acupuncture treatment has emerged as a safe and viable alternative prophylactic therapy that can effectively alleviate the duration and frequency of migraine attacks. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture are yet to be systematically elucidated. In this study, we enrolled female patients with migraine without aura ( = 20) and healthy controls ( = 10). Patients received acupuncture treatment on DU20, DU24, bilateral GB13, GB8, and GB20, applied three times per week over the course of 4 weeks for 12 sessions in total. Blood samples were collected from the median cubital vein before and after acupuncture treatment. Proteomic and metabolomic profiling was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the characteristics of differentially expressed molecules and expression of their corresponding biological pathways as well as to elucidate the pathogenesis of migraine and the biological effects underlying the treatment of migraine with acupuncture. Proteomic and metabolomic profiling of plasma samples from patients with migraine without aura before and after acupuncture treatment revealed enrichment of immune-related pathway functions and the arginine synthesis pathway. Joint pathway analyses revealed significant enrichment of the pentose phosphate and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways in patients with migraine. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and riboflavin metabolism pathways were significantly enriched after acupuncture treatment. The expression levels of various key proteins and metabolites, including α-D-glucose, flavin adenine dinucleotide, biliverdin reductase B, and L-glutamate, were significantly differentially expressed before and after acupuncture treatment in patients with migraine without aura. Treatment of migraine with acupuncture was associated with significant changes in key molecules and pathways, indicative of physiological changes in the trigeminovascular system, glutamate neurotoxicity, and other migraine-related physiological changes. Overall, our comprehensive analysis using proteomic and metabolomic profiling demonstrates that energy metabolism may serve as a key correlative link in the occurrence of migraine and the therapeutic effects of acupuncture treatment. Our findings may facilitate the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the ongoing search for effective treatments for migraine attacks.