This article describes commonly used experimental and clinical biomarkers of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration for the evaluation of neuropathology and monitoring of therapeutic interventions. Biomarkers are vital for diagnostics of brain disease and therapeutic monitoring. A biomarker can be objectively measured and evaluated as a proxy indicator for the pathophysiological process or response to therapeutic interventions. There are complex hurdles in understanding the molecular pathophysiology of neurological disorders and the ability to diagnose them at initial stages. Novel biomarkers for neurological diseases may surpass these issues, especially for early identification of disease risk. Validated biomarkers can measure the severity and progression of both acute neuronal injury and chronic neurological diseases such as epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and other brain diseases. Biomarkers are deployed to study progression and response to treatment, including noninvasive imaging tools for both acute and chronic brain conditions. Neuronal biomarkers are classified into four core subtypes: blood-based, immunohistochemical-based, neuroimaging-based, and electrophysiological biomarkers. Neuronal conditions have progressive stages, such as acute injury, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurogenesis, which can serve as indices of pathological status. Biomarkers are critical for the targeted identification of specific molecules, cells, tissues, or proteins that dramatically alter throughout the progression of brain conditions. There has been tremendous progress with biomarkers in acute conditions and chronic diseases affecting the central nervous system.