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Papers of the Week

Papers: 15 Oct 2022 - 21 Oct 2022

Animal Studies, Pharmacology/Drug Development

2022 Oct 11


CYP2D in the brain impacts oral hydrocodone analgesia in vivo.


Richards J, Miksys S, Novalen M, Tyndale RF
Neuropharmacology. 2022 Oct 11:109291.
PMID: 36241086.


Cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) metabolises many centrally-acting substrates including opioids. Hydrocodone, an opioid and CYP2D substrate, is metabolised to hydromorphone, an active metabolite. CYP2D in the brain is active in vivo and can alter drug response however, it is unknown whether metabolism by CYP2D in the brain alters oral hydrocodone induced analgesia. Propranolol, a selective CYP2D mechanism-based inhibitor, or vehicle, was administered into the right cerebral ventricle of male rats, (HAN Wistars, Envigo), 24 hours before testing for analgesia from oral hydrocodone (or hydromorphone, a non-CYP2D substrate). Hydrocodone and its CYP2D-mediated metabolites were simultaneously quantified using a novel LC-MS/MS assay. After propranolol vs vehicle pretreatment, there was significantly higher analgesia from oral hydrocodone, and a significantly lower brain CYP2D metabolic ratio (an in vivo phenotype of brain CYP2D activity that was derived from the molar sum of hydromorphone and its metabolites divided by hydrocodone). The brain CYP2D metabolic ratio correlated significantly with analgesia. There was no pretreatment effect on plasma hydrocodone concentrations, elimination rates, or metabolic ratio (an in vivo phenotype for hepatic CYP2D activity). The liver CYP2D metabolic ratio did not correlate with analgesia. Propranolol pretreatment had no impact on analgesia from oral hydromorphone. These data suggest that inhibited CYP2D activity in brain, causing reduced metabolism of brain hydrocodone, resulted in higher analgesia from oral hydrocodone, despite hydrocodone having a lower μ-opioid receptor affinity than hydromorphone. Thus, variation in CYP2D in the brain may be an important source of interindividual differences in response to CYP2D substrates, including oral hydrocodone.