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Papers of the Week

2022 Sep




A Rare Case of Brucellosis With Spontaneous Splenic Rupture Presenting as an Acute Abdomen.


Siraj F, Dhar A, Shabir A, Mantoo S, Khan UH
Cureus. 2022 Sep; 14(9):e28753.
PMID: 36211104.


Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection worldwide caused by the bacterial species Brucella. It has a wide range of presentations from asymptomatic infection to multisystem involvement. Splenomegaly is seen in around 30-60% of cases, however, atraumatic spontaneous splenic rupture is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old man who presented with acute left upper quadrant pain and fever of five days duration without a history of antecedent trauma. He was hemodynamically stable with examination revealing left upper quadrant tender palpable mass. Ultrasonography followed by computed tomography revealed subcapsular hematoma with perisplenic and perihepatic free fluid. Viral markers (hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus {CMV}, Epstein-Barr virus {EBV}, HIV, and dengue) were negative. The autoimmune profile was negative. Brucella serum agglutination test was positive (1: 640) and blood cultures grew . He was managed conservatively for splenic hematoma and received one unit blood transfusion and treatment with combination of antibiotics (rifampicin and doxycycline) for brucella for six weeks. On follow-up, the patient reported no further complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a clinical rarity and should be considered in patients presenting with acute abdomen and suspected infective, neoplastic, and inflammatory pathology. Spontaneous splenic rupture in acute brucellosis requires prompt clinical recognition and immediate anti-Brucella therapy to prevent the catastrophic progression.