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Papers of the Week

2022 Oct




Rectal Artery Embolization for Hemorrhoidal Disease: Anatomy, Evaluation, and Treatment Techniques.


Panneau J, Mege D, Di Biseglie M, Duclos J, Habert P, Bartoli A, Vidal V, Tradi F
Radiographics. 2022 Oct; 42(6):1829-1844.
PMID: 36190848.


Chronic hemorrhoidal disease is a common anorectal condition that leads to hemorrhoidal hyperplasia, which affects millions of people worldwide and is a significant medical and socioeconomic issue. Rectal bleeding is one of the main chronic symptoms. Recurrent rectal bleeding can alter an individual's quality of life and, more rarely, cause anemia. Pain is less common, occurring only in the event of complications such as congestive exacerbation, external hemorrhoidal thrombosis, or fissures. The most standard treatment involves dietary and hygiene measures, use of phlebotonic drugs, and nonsurgical treatment such as infrared photocoagulation or elastic band ligation. Excisional treatments such as hemorrhoidectomy and hemorrhoidopexy are the reference standards for treatment of hemorrhoidal disease. Embolization of the rectal arteries (ie, emborrhoid) has recently emerged as an effective treatment option, with few reported adverse effects, minimal blood loss, and a same-day hospital procedure. Hemorrhoid embolization is performed by using femoral or radial access. The inferior mesenteric artery and then the superior rectal arteries are catheterized with a microcatheter. Embolization can be performed by using different agents. Studies have shown improvement in symptoms and high technical success rates after treatment. The basic principles of hemorrhoid embolization that must be understood to achieve effective treatment, including those related to patient evaluation, the arterial anatomy, basic embolization, and published results, are reviewed. RSNA, 2022.