Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) develops as a challenging nerve-damaging adverse effect of anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. The disorder may require a chemotherapy dose reduction and a cessation of administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. Its principal sensory symptoms include, tingling, and numbness in the hands and feet. Severe pain can be encompassed among clinical manifestations. CIPN affects dramatically the patient's quality of life (QoL). Pain and sensory symptoms may occur for months, or even years after the termination of chemotherapeutic drugs. Although many pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been tested to overcome these symptoms, there is currently no standardized treatment for CIPN. According to current guidelines, Duloxetine is the only recommended agent for painful neuropathic symptoms. Therefore, finding effective therapies for CIPN is mandatory. The aim of this review was to dissect CIPN, the target and immunotherapy-based approaches to this disorder, as well as to offer new insights for new therapeutic perspectives.