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2022 Sep 23

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci

Neurological post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC).


Takao M, Ohira M
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2022 Sep 23.
PMID: 36148558.


The novel corona virus infectious disease, COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, can have two phases: acute (generally 4 weeks after onset) and chronic (> 4 weeks after onset). Both phases include a wide variety of signs and symptoms including neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The signs and symptoms that are considered sequelae of COVID-19 are termed post-COVID condition, long COVID-19, and post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). PASC symptoms include fatigue, dyspnea, palpitation, dysosmia, sub-fever, hypertension, alopecia, sleep problems, loss of concentration, amnesia, numbness, pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Because the specific pathophysiology of PASC has not yet been clarified, there are no definite criteria of the condition, hence the World Health Organization's definition is quite broad. Consequently, it is difficult to correctly diagnose PASC. Approximately 50% of patients may show at least one PASC symptom up to 12 months after COVID-19 infection; however, the exact prevalence of PASC has not been determined. Despite extensive research in progress worldwide, there are currently no clear diagnostic methodologies or treatments for PASC. In this review, we discuss the currently available information on PASC and highlight the neurological sequelae of COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, we provide clinical suggestions for diagnosing and caring for PASC patients based on our outpatient clinic experience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.