Undesirable side effects of insomnia and/or sleepiness may occur with many prescribed drugs, psychotropics as well as non-psychotropics. These central nervous system effects can be explained by the interactions of the drug with any of the numerous neurotransmitters and receptors that are involved in sleep and wakefulness. Also a close – sometimes bidirectional – relationship between disease and (disturbed) sleep/wakefulness is often present e.g. in chronic pain; drug effects may lead this vicious circle in both ways. Besides the importance for health and quality of life, effects on sleep or waking function can be a potential source of non-compliance.