Abdominal pain, which is a form of visceral pain, is a highly prevalent symptom worldwide frequently occurring following food ingestion. Its pathophysiology is complex and many factors, including intestinal environmental cues, the immune system, or the molecular composition of foods, can influence the development of postprandial abdominal pain. Due to the poor efficacy of drug treatments, current strategies are often limited to the exclusion of culprit food(s) from the diet. However, there are two important limitations to this approach. Firstly, patients suffering from food-induced abdominal pain usually recognise several food items as the cause of their gastrointestinal symptoms. Secondly, not all offending foods can always be identified by these patients. Newly identified mechanisms involving neuro-immune interactions and their communication with the intestinal microbiota shed light on the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this Mini-review, I highlight these novel mechanisms and discuss the relevance of such findings.