Monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus which is a DNA virus. The virus is transmitted to humans as a result of close contact with infected animals, infected humans or contaminated inanimate objects. The disease has a incubation period usually 7-14 days and it causes fever, headache, fatigue, myalgia, widespread body aches, swelling in lymph nodes and skin lesions. It may be difficult to distinguish monkeypox on the basis of clinical presentation alone, especially for cases with an atypical appearance, because of the various conditions that cause skin rashes. Testing should be offered to anyone who falls under the suspected case definition for monkeypox infection. Suitable samples are surface lesion and/or skin materials such as exudates swabs and crusts. Laboratory confirmation of specimens from suspected case is done using nucleic acid amplification testing, such as real-time or conventional polymerase chain reaction. Confirmation of MPXV infection should consider clinical and epidemiological information. Positive detection using an OPXV PCR assay followed by confirmation of MPXV via PCR and/or sequencing, or positive detection using MPXV PCR assay in suspected cases indicates confirmation of MPXV infection. Genetic sequence data (GSD) provide information on the origin and epidemic and characteristics of cases. There is a need to develop a more global and effective laboratory network for this emerging zoonosis, as well as to strengthen laboratory capacity, and international specimens referral capacities.