Anal pain and urinary retention are the two most outstanding complications of the procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) surgery. This study intended to assess the clinical effect and mechanism of Prostant on urinary retention and anal pain after the PPH. Here, 30 patients received PPH surgery. The role and mechanism of Prostant in patients and mice with urinary retention and anal pain were evaluated. ANOVA tests were executed and differences between groups were regarded as statistically significant when < 0.05. Prostant effectively improved the urination status, lower abdomen symptoms, time to urinate and score of VAS, and the reduction of TNF- and IL-6. Similarly, Prostant can ameliorate the outcome of urodynamics in urinary retention mice. Mechanically, Prostant reversed the urinary retention-elevated the serum level of hs-CRP and TNF-, reduction of IL-2, imbalance of Treg/Th17, and level of JAK2 and phosphorylated STAT3. Besides, Prostant ameliorated the pain as shown by the reduction of writhing response, and the elevation of threshold of pain and degree of swelling. Moreover, Prostant antagonized the pain-induced dysregulation of Treg/Th17. Therefore, Prostant can treat patients and mice with anal pain and urinary retention by modulating the balance of Th17/Treg to regulate the secretion and production of inflammatory factors. We hope our results can establish a scientific treatment approach for solving anal pain and urinary retention after PPH surgery of mixed hemorrhoids.