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Papers of the Week

2022 Dec

IBRO Neurosci Rep


Grape seed extract suppresses calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion and upregulates expression of GAD 65/67 and GABAB receptor in primary trigeminal ganglion cultures.


The trigeminal ganglion is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), which are orofacial pain conditions involving peripheral and central sensitization. The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is synthesized in some trigeminal ganglion neurons, and its release promotes inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and pain signaling. Recent studies in preclinical migraine and TMD models provide evidence that dietary supplementation with grape seed extract (GSE) inhibits trigeminal pain signaling. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which GSE modulates primary trigeminal ganglion cultures. The effect of GSE on CGRP secretion was determined by radioimmunoassay. To determine if GSE effects involved modulation of CGRP or the GABAergic system, expression of CGRP, GAD 65 and 67, GABAA receptor, and GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptor subunits were investigated by immunocytochemistry. GSE significantly inhibited basal CGRP secretion but did not alter neuronal CGRP expression. GAD 65 and 67 expression levels in neurons were significantly increased in response to GSE. While GSE did not cause a change in the neuronal expression of GABAA, GSE significantly increased GABAB1 expression in neurons, satellite glial cells, and Schwann cells. GABAB2 expression was significantly elevated in satellite glia and Schwann cells. These findings support the notion that GSE inhibition of basal CGRP secretion involves increased neuronal GAD 65 and 67 and GABAB receptor expression. GSE repression of CGRP release coupled with increased GABAB1 and GABAB2 glial cell expression would be neuroprotective by suppressing neuronal and glial excitability in the trigeminal ganglion.