We evaluated the association between chronic severe back pain with disability and participation, in U.S. Adults using data from the US 2019 National Health Interview Survey. In our sample of 2,925 adults (weighted n: 20,468,134) who reported having chronic severe back pain, 60% reported mobility disability, 60% had work limitations, 34% were limited for social participation and 16% had self-care limitations. Older age (65+) was associated with mobility difficulties (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.28,6.09) and work limitation (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.61,3.05). Lower socioeconomic status was associated with increasing odds of disability across the four categories. Being obese was only associated with mobility difficulties (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.41,2.71), while not working in the past week was associated with difficulties in mobility (OR 3.55, 95% CI 2.64,4.75), self-care (OR 3.34, 95% CI 2.20,5.08), and social participation (OR 3.20, 95% CI 2.13,4.80). Comorbidities were highly associated with limitations in all four categories. Those deeming their ability to manage their pain ineffective were twice as likely to have limitations in self-care, social and work participation but not mobility. Identifying factors associated with disability and limitation may help target appropriate management for persons with chronic pain at high risk for disability.