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2022 Sep 08

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi



[Pediatric pancreatic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 42 cases].


Gao Q, Xu H, Wang FH, Yi P, Yang TY, Li LP, Xia JQ, Zeng RX, Niu HL
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2022 Sep 08; 51(9):861-867.
PMID: 36097903.


To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of pancreatic lesions in children. The clinicopathological data of pancreatic lesions in children were analyzed including 42 cases of pancreatic tumors diagnosed from January 2000 to May 2021 in Guangzhou Women's and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou, China. Histological and immunohistochemical assessments were performed Related literature was reviewed. The 42 pediatric patients with pancreatic lesions aged 1 day to 12 years (mean, 4.25 years). There were 23 males and 19 females. Clinical presentations included abdominal masses, abdominal pain, vomiting and persistent hypoglycemia after birth. Ultrasound and computerized tomography examination showed space-occupying pancreatic lesions in 31 cases, but no detectable pancreatic lesions in 11 cases. Histologically, among the 42 cases, 22 cases (52.4%) were neoplastic, including 18 cases of epithelial origin. Nine cases of pancreatoblastoma showed that the epithelial tumor cells were arranged in a trabecular pattern, with squamous nests. Six cases of solid-pseudopapillary tumors revealed hemorrhagic and necrotic cysts and monomorphic epithelioid cells arranged in solid sheets, nests or pseudopapillae. Two cases of neuroendocrine tumors showed tumor cells arranged in cords or nests; one case had a mitotic count of about 3/10 high power field, and a Ki-67 index of about 5%, which was consistent with G2 neuroendocrine tumor; the other case showed tumor cells with cytological atypia, brisk mitoses, about 25/10 HPF and a Ki-67 index of about 80%, consistent with small-cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma. The case of acinar cell carcinoma showed high cellularity, tumor cells in solid, cord-like or acinar-like arrangement with little stroma, and monotonous tumor cells with single distinct nucleolus. There were 4 cases of mesenchymal tumors, including 3 cases of Kaposi's hemangioendothelioma and 1 case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Among the 20 cases (47.6%) of non-neoplastic lesions, there were 11 cases of hyperinsulinism with ATP-sensitive potassium channel abnormality (HAPCA). Severn cases of diffuse type HAPCA in which the islets scattered between the pancreatic acinar tissue, enlarged, and prominent nuclei. Three cases of focal type HAPCA showed pancreatic islet hyperplasia in the form of nested nodules (0.6-1.5 cm). One case of atypical type HAPCA had extensive islet hyperplasia in pancreatic tissue, and scattered proliferation of nest-like nodules was noted. There were also 7 cases of pseudocyst and 2 cases of congenital cyst. Immunohistochemically, pancreatoblastomas were diffusely positive for CKpan, CK8/18, and β-catenin (nuclear staining of squamous nests only). Solid-pseudopapillary tumors expressed CD10, cyclin D1, CD99, vimentin, CD56, and β-catenin (nuclear staining). Neuroendocrine tumors were positive for CK, Syn, NSE, CgA, CD56, and β-catenin (membranous staining). The acinar cell carcinoma was positive for CK8/18, trypsin, and β-catenin (membranous staining). Pancreatic lesions in children have a wide range of histopathological types. HAPCA is the most common lesion of newborns. Pediatric pancreatic tumors are rare and mostly malignant. It is important to recognize them and make correct pathological diagnoses.