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Papers of the Week

Papers: 10 Sep 2022 - 16 Sep 2022

Pharmacology/Drug Development

2022 Sep

Biomed Pharmacother


S-nitroso-L-cysteine stereoselectively blunts the adverse effects of morphine on breathing and arterial blood gas chemistry while promoting analgesia.


Getsy PM, Young AP, Bates JN, Baby SM, Seckler JM, Grossfield A, Hsieh Y-H, Lewis THJ, Jenkins MW, Gaston B, Lewis SJ
Biomed Pharmacother. 2022 Sep; 153:113436.
PMID: 36076552.


S-nitrosothiols exert multiple effects on neural processes in the central and peripheral nervous system. This study shows that intravenous infusion of S-nitroso-L-cysteine (SNO-L-CYS, 1 μmol/kg/min) in anesthetized male Sprague Dawley rats elicits (a) sustained increases in minute ventilation, via increases in frequency of breathing and tidal volume, (b) a decrease in Alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient, thus improving alveolar gas-exchange, (c) concomitant changes in arterial blood-gas chemistry, such as an increase in pO and a decrease in pCO, (d) a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and (e) an increase in tail-flick (TF) latency (antinociception). Infusion of S-nitroso-D-cysteine (SNO-D-CYS, 1 μmol/kg/min, IV), did not elicit similar responses, except for a sustained decrease in MAP equivalent to that elicited by SNO-L-CYS. A bolus injection of morphine (2 mg/kg, IV) in rats receiving an infusion of vehicle elicited (a) sustained decreases in frequency of breathing tidal volume, and therefore minute ventilation, (b) a sustained decrease in MAP, (c) sustained decreases in pH, pO and maximal sO with sustained increases in pCO and A-a gradient, and (d) a sustained increase in TF latency. In rats receiving SNO-L-CYS infusion, morphine elicited markedly smaller changes in minute ventilation, arterial blood gas chemistry, A-a gradient and MAP. In contrast, the antinociceptive effects of morphine were enhanced in rats receiving the infusion of SNO-L-CYS. The morphine-induced responses in rats receiving SNO-D-CYS infusion were similar to vehicle-infused rats. These data are the first to demonstrate that infusion of an S-nitrosothiol, such as SNO-L-CYS, can stereoselectively ameliorate the adverse effects of morphine on breathing and alveolar gas exchange while promoting antinociception.