(L.) Wigth & Arn. (DC) is widely used in traditional medicine against several inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis, because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to characterize the polyphenol-rich DC fruit extracts and investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in a rat inflammation model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Water and ethanolic extracts were characterized using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The polyphenol-rich extracts were administered in three different concentrations for 30 days. Pain threshold, thermal hyperalgesia, edema, and serum biomarkers specific to inflammatory processes or oxidative stress were evaluated. Both extracts were rich in polyphenolic compounds, mainly flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and flavone glycosides, which had important in vitro antioxidant capacity. DC fruit extracts administration had the maximum antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects after one day since the CFA injection and showed promising results for long-term use as well. The measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cortisol, and oxidative stress parameters showed that DC extracts significantly reduced these parameters, being dose and extract-type dependent. These results showed potential anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidative properties and revealed the necessity of using a standardized polyphenolic DC extract to avoid result variability.