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Int Rev Neurobiol


Sex differences in neurovascular disorders.


Carcel C, Caso V, Aguiar de Sousa D, Sandset E C
Int Rev Neurobiol. 2022; 164:69-99.
PMID: 36038210.


Neurovascular disorders is a heterogenous group of diseases, including one of the most time critical disorders in emergency medicine; stroke. Sex differences are extensively described in neurovascular disorders, ranging from differences in symptom presentation, risk factors, treatment and outcomes. For example, women with stroke, more often present with generalized weakness, reduced consciousness and headache than men. Furthermore, there are differences in risk factors, outcomes and in the effect of secondary prevention. Women have a higher risk of cerebral venous thrombosis and developing cerebral aneurysms. In general, women have been underrepresented in trials on neurovascular disorders. This chapter provides an extensive overview of sex differences in stroke in general and in the differences specially seen in ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage and in cerebral venous thrombosis.