Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative and heterogeneous disease that affects all types of joint structures. Current clinical treatments are only symptomatic and do not manage the degenerative process in animals or humans. One of the new orthobiological treatment strategies being developed to treat OA is the use of drug delivery systems (DDS) to release bioactive molecules over a long period of time directly into the joint to limit inflammation, control pain, and reduce cartilage degradation. Two vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 and bradykinin, play important roles in OA pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of two functionalized nanogels as DDS. We assessed the effect of chitosan functionalized with a type A endothelin receptor antagonist (BQ-123-CHI) and/or hyaluronic acid functionalized with a type B bradykinin receptor antagonist (R-954-HA). The biocompatibility of these nanogels, alone or in combination, was first validated on equine articular chondrocytes cultured under different oxic conditions. Further, in an OA equine organoid model via induction with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), a combination of BQ-123-CHI and R-954-HA (BR5) triggered the greatest decrease in inflammatory and catabolic markers. In basal and OA conditions, BQ-123-CHI alone or in equimolar combinations with R-954-HA had weak pro-anabolic effects on collagens synthesis. These new nanogels, as part of a composite DDS, show promising attributes for treating OA.