The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is rising, and pain is the hallmark symptom of OA. Pain in OA is complicated and can be influenced by multiple joint-related factors and factors related to, e.g., physiological, epigenetic, and pain sensory profiles. Increasing evidence suggests that a subset of patients with OA are pain sensitive. This can be assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Common treatments of OA are total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and administration of 3-weeks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which provide pain relief to many patients with OA. However, approx. 20% of patients experience chronic postoperative pain after TKA, whereas NSAIDs provide an average pain relief of approx. 25%. The current topical review focuses on the emerging evidence linking pretreatment QST to the treatment response of TKA and NSAID treatments.