Neuropathic pain is chronic pain resulting from central or peripheral nerve damage that remains difficult to treat. Current evidence suggests that nobiletin, isolated from Citrus reticulata Blanco, possesses analgesic and neuroprotective effects. However, its effect on neuropathic pain has not been reported. This study evaluated the analgesic effect of nobiletin on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in mice. In vivo, mice were intragastrically administered with nobiletin (30, 60, 120 mg/kg) for eight consecutive days, respectively. Our study indicated that nobiletin ameliorated mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia on CCI mice at doses that do not induce significant sedation. Moreover, nobiletin could ameliorate axonal and myelin injury of the sciatic nerve and further restore abnormal sciatic nerve electrical activity on CCI mice. In vitro studies indicated that nobiletin could suppress the proteins and mRNA expression of the IRF5/P2X4R/BDNF signalling pathway in fibronectin-induced BV2 cells. Overall, our results indicated that nobiletin might exert an analgesic effect on CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice by inhibiting the IRF5/P2X4R/BDNF signalling pathway in spinal microglia. This study provided a novel potential therapeutic drug for neuropathic pain and new insights into the pharmacological action of nobiletin.